1960 September 22, 1960, Mali's Independence

1960 -1968 Modibo Keita is president of Mali.

1962-1963 First Tuareg rebellion after Mali's independence, under Modibo Keïta, the first president of the Republic of Mali. The president used weapons the Malian army received from the Soviet Union to put down the rebellion without signing any treaty.

1990 Second Tuareg rebellion after Mali's independence, June 28, 1990 began with an attack on Ménaka and ended with the "Peace Accord of Tamanrasset" (Algeria).

1991 Government of Mali represented by President Moussa Traoré (1968 - March 1991) and the Patriotic Movement of Azawad, the Arab Islamic Front of Azawad, sign the Tamanrasset Peace Accord, January 6, 1991.

1991-1992 Transition government (March 1991-June 1992) in Mali headed by General Amadou Toumani Touré ("ATT").

Due to continuing insecurity in the northern regions of Mali (banditry, kidnapping, cattle stealing, harassment of peasants), there was a need to sign a peace treaty among the same parties, April 11, 1992 under General ATT, head of the transition government, who was in charge of preparing democratic elections that led to the presidency of Alpha Oumar Konaré, June, 1992.

1994 Hostilities continued (fighting in the northern regions of Mali) during this period, because the National Pact was not fully implemented by the government. As a result of the failure of the Malian army to protect the inhabitants and the abandonment of the villagers by the administration, the self-defense movement, Ghanda Koy (the "Owners of the Land") emerged in Gao in 1994. President Alpha Oumar Konaré (1992- 2002) signed another peace treaty May 15, 1994 in Algeria.

With a group of experts the government of Mali issued a White Paper ("Livre Blanc sur le Nord du Mali") to inform the national and international communities regarding the history and the geography of the northern region of Mali, December 1994.

1996 Under President Alpha Konaré and Jerry Rawlings (President of Ghana who was invited), the Flame of Peace ceremony was organized in Timbuktu, March 27, 1996. Up to 3,000 weapons collected from former rebels were burned.

2006 Another Tuareg rebellion erupted with attacks on the garrison towns of Kidal and Ménaka in northern Mali on May 23, 2006, spearheaded by Bahanga, Fagaga and Bamoussa—based on claims that the former peace treaty was not fully executed. The Tuareg demanded that the Malian army leave the area. On July 4, 2006 President Amadou Toumani Touré (2002 – March 21, 2012) signed another peace treaty in Algeria.

2012 After Gaddafi's assassination in Libya, Tuareg rebels and mercenaries who had fought for him were allowed to enter Mali heavily armed. The MNLA Tuareg group proclaimed their total independence from Mali and claimed Kidal, Timbuktu and Gao Regions (states) as their territory (Azawad). The rebellion began in Ménaka, January 17, 2012. By April 1, the rebels occupied these three Regions (after successive retreats and abandonment of the war by the Malian army). Different armed groups include: the MNLA-the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad-Tuareg rebels; Ansar Dine- a religious extremist movement that aims to impose "Sharia Law" throughout Mali, supported by AQMI, the Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb, and Boco Haram from Nigeria. Now, the (Arab) National Front for the Liberation of Azawad claims Timbuktu.

2012 April 5: Dr. Hassimi Oumarou Maiga and Dr. Farmo Moumouni issued an Open Letter to the Heads of African States, African People, and the worldwide African Diaspora. April 6: An African Union press release "totally rejects the so-called declaration of 'Independence' by a rebel group in northern Mali".

The Coup d'Etat and the Current Situation

President ATT announced presidential elections in April despite the continuing insecurity and war in the north. Seventy Malian soldiers were executed at Aguel'hoc (Kidal Region) in January after they ran out of ammunition. Outraged due to the government's abandonment of the war and the failure to adequately equip the Malian army in the north, a spontaneous coup d'état led by Captain Amadou Haya Sanogo, removed President ATT, March 22, 2012. ECOWAS / CEDEAO immediately condemned the coup along with many Malian presidential candidates and urged Sanogo to restore the Constitution and the National Assembly that he suspended. ECOWAS was supported by the United Nations, the African Union, France and the United States. Before Captain Sanogo was able to organize a military response to the crisis in the north or to establish a transition government, April 2 ECOWAS placed Mali under a total embargo (diplomatic, economic and financial freeze). During this period the Tuareg rebels and Ansar Dine consolidated their occupation by taking the cities of Gao and Timbuktu. All public buildings, including the hospital and the maternity in Gao stripped and pillaged. The scramble for Africa continues.

The country is awaiting the installation of the President of the National Assembly to lead the nation until elections. Captain Sanogo retreated from power with total immunity. The Open Letter to the Heads of African States of April 4 issued a call "for an insurrection of moral conscience" among African descent people worldwide "against the degradation of Black people; against any form of extremism; against all the external and internal forces that work for the division of Africa in order to dominate African people and take over the wealth of the land and the mineral resources".

Prepared by: Dr. Hassimi Oumarou Maïga, Directeur de Recherche (Distinguished Research Professor)- Mali, April 8, 2012.


Livre Blanc sur le "Problème du Nord" du Mali. Bamako: Imprimerie Nouvelle LINO, Bamako, December, 1994.

"Dossier: Gestion Désastreuse du Nord," Le Républicain, June 22, 1994. (Disastrous management of Northern Mali)

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